Aboriginal Canada Portal - "Links to the following sites in an organized manner: National Aboriginal Organizations, 12 Federal Government departments with Aboriginal mandates, all Provincial Governments and organizations with Aboriginal responsibilities, as well as all related Aboriginal community information."
American Indian Resources - Subtitled A Library of Native American literature, culture, education, history, issues and language, and part of the larger Multicultural Resources site, these links have been organized and annotated by Will Karkavelas of Osaka University.
American Indian Research Project - South Dakota Oral History Center. "Contains over 1,900 taped interviews, 70 percent of which were gathered in the field between 1967 and 1973." Except for one sample, the interviews are not online, but there is a partial index and you can order transcripts.
American Indian Studies: A Bibliographic Guide (1995) - By Phillip M. White. Parts of this book are available in Google Books.
American Indians: A Select Catalog of NARA Microfilm Publications - National Archives microfilm publications "that relate directly to American Indians, to the formation of federal Indian policy, and to the personnel who created or enforced that policy. The catalog is divided into civilian agency records and military establishment records. In each section, the publications containing the most information about Indians are listed first" followed by a roll-by-roll listing of the contents. Includes information on how to order the microfilm."
American Indians of the Pacific Northwest - "This digital collection integrates over 2,300 photographs and 7,700 pages of text relating to the American Indians in two cultural areas of the Pacific Northwest, the Northwest Coast and Plateau. These resources illustrate many aspects of life and work, including housing, clothing, crafts, transportation, education, and employment. The materials are drawn from the extensive collections of the University of Washington Libraries, the Cheney Cowles Museum/Eastern Washington State Historical Society in Spokane, and the Museum of History and Industry in Seattle." Also accessible via the Library of Congress.
American Museum of Natural History - New York. The Library provides access to Online Catalog. The Collections Database provides access to over 50,000 images and catalog descriptions from the North American Ethnographic Collection. You can search by culture, material, object name, catalog no., locale or donor name. A search for Catalog item E/ 2334 will retrieve the images of two Tlingit baskets. A search for ornament (object name) will retrieve over 800 images and a search for Plains (culture) and bead (material) will retrieve over 700 including a buffalo robe (50 / 5860). An object name search for kachina retrieves 239 items. There are some lovely Navaho blankets (50.2/ 6840, 50.2/ 6841, 50.2/ 6842, 50 / 2091) and bracelets (50.2/ 4168, 50.2/ 4169, 50.2/ 4171, 50 / 6356 A, 50.2/ 2394). Searching by donor is particularly rewarding: try Auchincloss, Morgan, Wissler, Spinden, Boas, Harvey, Mead, Jesup, Peabody (baskets), or Emmons. Search for object name: amulet, apron, armlet, bag, ball, basket, beadwork, belt, bowl, brooch, canoe, carving, charm, club, coat, comb, cradle board (baby board), cup, dance, dice, doll, feather, fetish, fish, gambling, game, hat, headband, headdress, jacket, jar, knife, labret, lance, leggings, mask, medicine bundle, mittens, model, moccasin, necklace, paddle, parfleche, pipe, pottery, pouch, prayer stick, purse, rattle, robe, saddle, sheath, snowshoes (snow shoe), spear, spoon, tomahawk, totem pole, toy, tray, wampum.
American Philosophical Society - Founded by Benjamin Franklin in Philadelphia in 1743. The Library houses over 180,000 volumes and bound periodicals, six million manuscripts, and thousands of maps and prints. You can search MOLE, the Manuscripts Online Guide and VOLE, the Vaughan Online Catalog, and there are Finding Aids and Subject Guides. Collections of note include:
William N. Fenton Papers - "Yale-educated ethnographer, William Fenton has devoted most of his career to study of the Iroquois Indians of New York State and Canada."
Native American Sound Recordings - Recording #3 features an August 12, 1950 recording of Lucenda George speaking in the Onondaga language about locusts, Clifford's garden, winter and the dam built on the Onondaga reservation.
Annual Review of Anthropology - Article abstracts (full-text available to subscribers only) from 1984 to the present. A search for American Indian (words in title or abstract), for example, retrieves 14 results.
Anthropological Index of the Royal Anthropological Institute - "Anthropological Index Online is based on the journal holdings of The Anthropology Library at the The British Museum (Museum of Mankind) which receives periodicals in all branches of anthropology, from academic institutions and publishers around the world."
Antiquities of Wisconsin - Electronic text of the book by Increase A. Lapham, published by the Smithsonian Institution in 1855, includes 92 pages of text, illustrated with 61 wood engravings, and 55 lithographed plates.
Archives of Maryland Online - "The first 72 volumes of this series were published between 1883 and 1972 by the Maryland Historical Society. They contain many of the official records of Maryland from 1634 to 1820. We have also added 30 additional volumes to this series in the past year. The website contains images of the originals as well as fully searchable text." Consider spelling variants as you search (Sasquehannah). The archives contains some interesting early records. Volume 6 of the series is a transcription of the Correspondence of Governor Horatio Sharpe, Volume 1,1753-1757 which includes some material about Indian Affairs. Starting on page 436 of this volume is a lengthy account from Fort George in New York on 4th June 1756, in which the author writes about Sir William Johnson, the Mohawks, and the Onondago. Proceedings of the Council of Maryland, 1732:1753, concerns the 1844 treaty council held in Lancaster, Pennsylvania. Members of the Six Nations, including Onondaga chief Canasatego (Cannasatego), met with representatives from Maryland, Pennsylvania and Virginia. Conrad Weiser (Conrade) was present as interpreter.
Arizona Memory Project - "Established by the Arizona State Library, Archives and Public Records, is an online repository for digital collections from archives, libraries, museums, historical societies and other Arizona cultural institutions." Collections of interest include:
Medallion Papers a "series of 39 publications issued between 1928-1950 by the Gila Pueblo Archaeological Foundation. Gila Pueblo, as it later became known, was one of the earliest Arizona institutions doing archaeological surveying and research in the Southwest. It was founded by Winifred and Harold S. Gladwin as a private foundation and employed professional archaeologists whose research was published in the Medallion Papers. Their work was instrumental in defining the Hohokam, Mogollon, San Simon and Cochise cultures and in describing early pottery types including Hohokam red-on-buff, Salado polychrome, Casas Grandes and others."
Sharlot Hall Museum American Indians Image Collection - "This collection of still images is related to the American Indians of Arizona and the Southwest (1865-1970). Tribes include Navajo, Apache, Yavapai, Hualapai, Papago, Hopi, Mohave, Paiute, Yaqui, Havasupai, Pima and Maricopa.Also included in the collection are images of prehistoric ruins, pueblos, and rock art."
ArtNet - A rich resource for art and antiques. (See their Site Index.) There is an Artist Index. The weekly ArtNet Magazine offers news & reviews, and features with archives back to 1996. The Galleries database is searchable by gallery name, artist name, gallery specialty, location, and furniture or design.
Bibliothèque Nationale de France - Although much of the site is in French you can locate many full texts in English and there are a number of outstanding visual resources as well.
Gallica, a text and image digitization project comparable to the Library of Congress's American Memory project, is a rich resource for material on American Indian history and anthropology. For example the Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletins are available from 1881 to 1933. To find them, do a click on recherche and search for the title (Mots du titre) bureau of american ethnology. From your results, select Annual report of the Bureau of American ethnology: to the Secretary of the Smithsonian institution (Voir la liste des fascicules). This will bring up a list of all the titles they own, from 1881 (N 01 / 1879-1880) to 1933 (N 048 / 1930-1931). Among the images are 192 portraits of American Indians [Indiens des Etats-Unis] taken by the photographer Pinart between 1860-1876. The simplest way to search (recherche) this site is by keyword search (recherche libre). Try specific tribe names (Shawnee, Delaware, Huron) or use such terms as Indiens, indienne. To limit your search to images check the box for Lots d'images (under Types de documents). Bureau of American Ethnology List of Publications has an index to titles and authors for Bulletins and Annual Reports.
British Columbia Archives - A keyword search for Haida in Visual Records, (checking the option Only match items with associated objects "AND LINK" e.g. images or finding aids) retrieves 54 images, a search for Indian People retrieves 858 images, a search for Dossetter retrieves 45 images.
Indian Castle Church - State Route 55, Town of Danube, Herkimer County (Fort Hendrick), taken by photographer Nelson E. Baldwin on May 5, 1936. "Indian Castle Church was built in 1769 by Captain Samuel Clyde for Sir William Johnson, who presented it to the Canajoharies (Mohawks of the Upper or Canajoharie Mohawks Castle), in 1770. It is the only Colonial Indian Mission Chursch standing in New York State and the only surviving Colonial building of the Mohawks or Iroquois Castles. The Church was built on land owned by Joseh Brandt [Brant], the famous Mohawk Chieftain, who was noted for his pity [piety?] and who translated the gospel of St. Mark into the Mohawk language. During the Revolution, the Mohawk Indian raiders, formerly residents here, attempted to steal the bell of this old church. They, however, neglected to fasten its clapper and its ringing awakened the parish settlers who armed themselves, sallied out and recovered the old church bell." (Data Page 2).
Rock Eagle Mound - Rock Eagle State Park, Putnam County, Georgia by Kenneth Kay (1980)
Shoshone Indian Cemetery - Wind River Indian Reservation, Fort Washakie, Fremont County, Wyoming. "This cemetery supposedly contains the grave of Sacajawea, Indian guide of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Located in cemetery is the oldest chapel built for the Indians in Wyoming." (Data page 2). Photograph by Jack E. Boucher (1974).
"I Am a Man" - Joe Starita talked about his book "I Am a Man": Chief Standing Bear's Journey for Justice...In 1879, Ponca Chief Standing Bear challenged decades of Indian policy when he stood in a federal courthouse in Omaha, Nebraska, and demanded to be recognized as a person by the U.S. government. The eventual results were that all Native American peoples were given the full rights of American citizenship." 06/07/2009, [46:00]
The Absolutely True Diary of a Part-Time Indian - "Sherman Alexie talked about his young adult novel The Absolutely True Diary of a Part-Time Indian, published by Little, Brown Young Readers. It is a semi-autobiographical chronicle of growing up on a Washington State Indian reservation and transfering from the reservation school to the rich, white school. In a frequently humorous presentation he talked about his life and the differences from the book." 11/03/2007 [44:00]
Cahokia Mounds State Historic Site - Located near Collinsville, Illinois, the historic site holds the archaeological remnants of a sophisticated prehistoric civilization inhabited by the Mississippians from about A.D. 700 to 1400. A UNESCO World Heritage Site: "Cahokia Mounds, some 13 km north-east of St Louis, Missouri, is the largest pre-Columbian settlement north of Mexico. It was occupied primarily during the Mississippian period (800–1400), when it covered nearly 1,600 ha and included some 120 mounds. It is a striking example of a complex chiefdom society, with many satellite mound centres and numerous outlying hamlets and villages. This agricultural society may have had a population of 10–20,000 at its peak between 1050 and 1150. Primary features at the site include Monks Mound, the largest prehistoric earthwork in the Americas, covering over 5 ha and standing 30 m high." See also Cahokia and Surrounding Mound Groups by D. I. Bushnell, Jr., Papers of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, Vol. III, No. 1, May, 1904, pp. 1-84.
CBC Archives - Canadian Broadcasting Corporation archived interviews include:
Canadian Encyclopedia Online - Full-text, multimedia encylopedia. The subject index shows 38 pages of entries for Native People. (Provided by Historica, a foundation whose mandate is to provide Canadians with a deeper understanding of their history.)
Casas Grandes and the Ceramic Art of the Ancient Southwest - Published by the Art Institute of Chicago in association with Yale University Press for the exhibition at the Art Institue of Chicago from April 22 to August 13, 2006. This is a beautiful book with 141 color photographs of pre-Columbian pottery, primarily from private collections. It's $28.35 at Amazon.com (the list price is $45.00). See UNESCO's World Heritage List - Archeological Zone of Paquimé, Casas Grandes.
is "based on a two-volume book of the same name published in 1986 by the Museum of Anthropology of the University of Michigan. The database - which contains 17,634 items representing the medicinal uses of 2,147 species from 760 genera and 142 families by 123 different native American groups - was built over a period of about 10 years with support from the National Endowment for the Humanities, the National Science Foundation, and the University of Michigan-Dearborn." The Food Plant Database, based on Food Plants of the North American Indians by Elias Yanovsky, c1936, reviewed approximately 80 years of literature, back to around 1850, listing 1,112 species in 444 genera of plants among 120 families, used for food by the North American Indians.
A Century of Lawmaking for a New Nation: U.S. Congressional Documents and Debates, 1774-1873 - "Consists of a linked set of published congressional records of the United States of America from the Continental Congress through the 43rd Congress, 1774-1875. Congressional bills and resolutions for selected sessions beginning with the 6th Congress (1799) in the House of Representatives and the 16th Congress (1819) in the Senate. A select number of documents and reports from the monumental U.S. Congressional Serial Set are available as well.
This online collection houses the records of the U.S. Congress up to 1875, which includes the first three volumes of the Congressional Record, published by the Government Printing Office. To access the contemporary Congressional Record go to THOMAS, the Library of Congress's legislative information Web site." It includes:
The Annals of Congress - Formally known as The Debates and Proceedings in the Congress of the United States, the Amma;s "cover the 1st Congress through the first session of the 18th Congress, from 1789 to 1824. The Annals were not published contemporaneously, but were compiled between 1834 and 1856, using the best records available, primarily newspaper accounts. Speeches are paraphrased rather than presented verbatim, but the record of debate is nonetheless fuller than that available from the House and Senate Journals. The Annals were immediately succeeded by the Register of Debates, and subsequently by the Congressional Globe and Congressional Record."
Senate Journal - "The Journal should be seen as the minutes of floor action. It notes the matters considered by the Senate and the votes and other actions taken. It does not record the actual debates, which can be consulted through the "Link to date-related documents" in the full text transcription of the Journal."
Senate Executive Journal (1789-1875) - "Record of its executive proceedings that relate to its functions of confirming presidential nominees and consenting to the making of treaties. The Senate Executive Journal was not made public until 1828, when the Senate decided to print and publish the proceedings for all the previous Congresses and thereafter to publish the journal for each session at its close."
Code of Federal Regulations - National Archives and Records Administration. Title 25 deals with Indian issues. Other related titles include Native American Housing (Title 24, Part 1000), Indian Health (Title 42, Part 36), and Requirements for surface coal mining and reclamation operations on Indian Lands (Title 30, Part 75). You can also browse and search your choice of CFR titles and/or volumes; Title 25: Indians is available from 1997.
CodeTalk - Federal interagency information network managed by native Americans at HUD's Office of Native American Programs.
Colonial Connecticut Records: the Public Records of the Colony of Connecticut 1636-1776 - The University of Connecticut, with the assistance of the Mashantucket Pequot Museum & Research Center, has digitized microfilm copies of Connecticut (Colony). The Public Records of the Colony of Connecticut, from April 1636 to October 1776 ... transcribed and published, (in accordance with a resolution of the General assembly). Hartford: Brown & Parsons. 1850-1890. 15 vols. Although not yet searchable by keyword, each volume is carefully indexed.
Community Learning Network - "CLN is designed to help K-12 teachers integrate technology into their classrooms. We have over 265 menu pages with more than 5,800 annotated links to free resources on educational WWW sites -- all organized within an intuitive structure." There is a Theme Index and a section on First Nations History.
Digital Library of Georgia - Among the collections is Southeastern Native American Documents, 1730-1842 which "contains over 1,000 documents and images relating to the Native American population of the Southeastern United States from the collections of the University of Georgia Libraries, the University of Tennessee at Knoxville Library, the Frank H. McClung Museum, and the Tennessee State Library and Archives. The documents are comprised of letters, legal proceedings, military orders, financial papers, and archaeological images relating to Native Americans in the Southeast." Georgia Historic Books "contains full-text, fully searchable books related to Georgia's history and culture. Most are from the 19th to early 20th century and focus on Georgia history, biography, and literature."
Early Canadiana Online - "Full text online collection of more than 3,000 books and pamphlets documenting Canadian history from the first European contact to the late 19th century. The collection is particularly strong in native studies, travel and exploration, and the history of French Canada." (Note: a password is not required - leave username and password blank.) A search for Iroquoian Indians, for example, retrieves 12 documents including:
United States Government Policies Toward Native Americans, 1787-1990: A Guide to Materials in the Gritish Library by David J.l Whittaker, Eccles Centre for American Studies 1996, 91pp. "This bibliographical guide to material in the British Library has been assembled to assist in locating
the more important works on this significant topic. It is not comprehensive, but does call attention
to the major studies and sources on American Indian policy history. Almost all of the books cited
have their own bibliographies which will lead the serious researcher to additional material. A few
items are listed which are not in the British Library."
Edward S. Curtis's The North American Indian - "One of the most significant and controversial representations of traditional American Indian culture ever produced. Issued in a limited edition from 1907-1930, the publication continues to exert a major influence on the image of Indians in popular culture...Featured here are all of the published photogravure images including over 1500 illustrations bound in the text volumes, along with over 700 portfolio plates." (Library of Congress.) See also Edward S. Curtis's The North American Indian
Elkus Indian Papers - "California Academy of Sciences houses a collection of over 2,000 documents related to Indian affairs over the period 1922-1963. These papers came from the estate of Charles de Young Elkus, a San Francisco attorney..." The database is searchable and browsable by name of correspondant.
Emory Women Writers Resource Project - Among the full-text Native-American related titles are Nowita, the Sweet Singer. A Romantic Tradition of Spavinaw, Indian Territory (1900) by Mabel Washbourne Anderson, Memoir Of Elizabeth Jones, a Little Indian Girl, Who Lived at the River-Credit Mission, Upper Canada by Anonymous, The Sick Child (1899), An Autobiography (1911), My People [Winnebagoes](1897) and Gray Wolf's Daughter (1899) all by Angel De Cora (Hinook-Mahiwi-Kilinaka), An Indian Woman's Letter (1879), Bright Eyes (1881), Omaha Legends and Tent-Stories (1883), The Indian Question (1880) all by Susette La Flesche (Bright Eyes), and Great Work of an Indian (1906) by Ora Eddleman Reed.
Federally Recognized Tribes - "This notice publishes the
current list of 561 tribal entities recognized and eligible for funding and services from the Bureau of Indian Affairs by virtue of their status as Indian tribes. The list is updated from the notice published on November 25, 2005 (70 FR 71194)." Published in the Federal Register.
Fenimore Art Museum - Cooperstown. The Eugene and Clare Thaw Collection of American Indian Art is described by Steven M. L. Aronson: "...The 800 arrestingly beautiful objects...are incontestably the best of their kind - milestones of American Indian inventiveness." (Native Beauties: Eugene V. Thaw on His Extraordinary Compilation of North American Indian Works, Architectural Digest, June, 2008.) In the Virtual Museum you can view catalog records and images of the 825 items in the collection including:
FindArticles.com - Free online article-search service allows you to search for (and read) articles published over the last 1 to 2 years in more than 300 reputable magazines and journals. You can view publications by subject or by name.
First Nations Collection - Part of the Southern Oregon Digital Archives (SODA), the First Nations Collection has "documents, books, and articles relating to the indigenous peoples of this bioregion." Particularly interesting are three books by the anthropologist Edward Sapir (1884-1939. These books are rich sources of creation stories in which Coyote plays a major role.
Yana Texts (235 pages) were collected in 1907 from two locations in Shasta County California: near Redding and between Round Mountain and Montgomery Creek. In also incorporates material collected by Roland. B. Dixon in 1900 from Sam Bat'wi and Round Mountain Jack.
Takelma Texts (267 pages ) were collected Sapir in the summer of 1906 in Siletz Resertaion in western Oregon. Frances Johnson (Gwisgwashan) was the "sole informant".
Wishram texts, Volume II, Together with Wasco Tales and Myths (333 pages). The Wishram texts were obtained, for the most part, in Yakima Reservation, in southern Washington, in the summer of 1905. Much of the Wishram material was gathered by an interpreter, Pete McGuff from Louis Simpson (Menait). Jeremiah Curtin collected the Wasco texts.
First Nations Periodical Index - Searchable index of 20 Aboriginal newspapers, journals, and magazines, of mainly Canadian Native content, covering the years 1981 to 1997. With a Journal List. (An advanced keyword search for Residential schools returned 49 citations.) A joint project of the Saskatchewan Indian Federated College, Saskatoon Campus, the Saskatchewan Indian Cultural Centre and the Library Services for Saskatchewan Aboriginal Peoples committee.
FirstGov - Official website for searching the U.S. Government.
Florida State Archives Photographic Collection - The Peithmann Collection consists of 573 photographs, taken by Irvin M. Peithmann in the 1950s, documenting the daily lives of the Seminoles on Brighton and Big Cypress Reservations in south Florida. (Go to the bottom of the search page for information and access to the collection.)
The Four Indian Kings - Virtual Vault, Library & Archives, Canada. "The four Indian kings first travelled to London in 1710 to meet Queen Anne as delegates of the Iroquoian Confederacy in an effort to cement an alliance with the British. Queen Anne was so impressed by her visitors that she commissioned their portraits by court painter John Verelst. The portraits are believed to be some of the earliest surviving oil portraits of Aboriginal peoples taken from life."
Fund of the Four Directions - "National Native-run charitable foundation dedicated to empowering Indigenous communities in North America to implement solutions that revitalize and are consistent with Indigenous ways and concepts."
Gallica, bibliothèque numérique de la Bibliothèque nationale de France - Digitization project, currently available in French only. "Au 1er janvier 2004, Gallica offrait sur la Toile : 70 000 volumes imprimés en mode image, 1200 volumes imprimés en mode texte, 500 documents sonores, 80 000 images fixes."
A catalogue search (recherche) for Crèvecoeur locates the text (in pdf format) and illustrations for
Voyage dans la Haute Pennsylvanie et dans l'état de New-York depuis l'année 1785 jusqu'en 1798. The search results also include illustrations (Mosaique) from the work: there are images of Késkétomah, ancien Sachem de la Nation Onondaga and Koohassen, guerrier de la Nation Onéida. You can also browse many volumes of the Annual report of the Bureau of American ethnology: to the Secretary of the Smithsonian institution. Do a search (recherche) for the title (Mots du titre) bureau of american ethnology. From your results, select Annual report of the Bureau of American ethnology: to the Secretary of the Smithsonian institution (Voir la liste des fascicules). This will bring up a list of all the titles they own, from 1881 (N 01 / 1879-1880) to 1933 (N 048 / 1930-1931). For example, the
Twenty-First Annual Report, published in 1903, and which covers the years 1899-1900, has articles on Hopi katcinas, drawn by native artists, by Jesse Walter Fewkes (Pp. 3-126, pls. II-LXIII) and Iroquoian cosmology, by J. N. B. Hewitt (Pp. 127-339, pls. LXIV-LXIX). (To locate contents of these Annual Reports, consult the Smithsonian's
List of Publications of the Bureau of American Ethnology which provides article titles, authors and page numbers.) A title search for Bureau of American ethnology retrieves 64 results, which include the full texts of Bibliography of the Iroquoian languages by James Constantine Pilling, The Problem of the Ohio mounds by Cyrus Thomas and Siouan tribes of the east by James Mooney. (Use AltaVista's Babel Fish to help with translation.)
George Washington Papers - Library of Congress American Memory Project to digitize approximately 65,000 documents is a rich resource for locating primary source material relating to Indian affairs. For example, if you are researching the Sullivan Campaign of 1779 in New York, a keyword search for Sullivan locates many letters written by Sullivan and Washington between May and September of 1779, when the campaign occurred. A search for James Clinton,and Tioga will also retrieve letters of interest.
Good Minds - Educational Resources for Aboriginal Studies, First Nations Studies, Indigenous Studies, and Native American Studies.
Göttinger Digitalisierungszentrums - Digital Library at the Lower Saxony State and University Library, Göttingen, includes a collection of over 2,000 volumes of early travel books. A title search for Onondaga, for example, retrieves the following titles:
GPO Access Multi-Database Search - Will search Congressional Record, Federal Register, Congressional Bills, Public Laws, U.S. Code. For example, a search for Hopi, in the Federal Register, Volume 66 (2001), retrieves 20 results, one of which is a proposed rule change entitled "Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System; Religious Ceremonial Collection of Golden Eaglets From Wupatki National Monument". There is also a Database List. A subject search for Indian in the General Accounting Office (GAO) Reports (on 4 June 2001) database retrieves 33 results including Money Laundering: Rapid Growth of Casinos Makes Them Vulnerable (01/04/96, GAO/GGD-96-28), Indian Programs: BIA Should Streamline Its Processes for Estimating Land Rental Values (06/30/1999, GAO/RCED-99-165) and Indian Trust Funds: Improvements Made in Acquisition of New Asset and Accounting System But Significant Risks Remain (09/15/2000, GAO/AIMD-00-259).
GOVBOT - Searchable database of Federal Government web sites.
Government of Canada Web Archive - "At the time of its launch in Fall 2007, approximately 100 million digital objects (over 4 terabytes) of archived Federal Government website data was made accessible."
Harvard Views of Readers, Readership, and Reading History - Harvard Open Collections Program. "Online exploration of the intellectual, cultural, and political history of reading as reflected in the historical holdings of the Harvard Libraries. For Internet users worldwide, Reading provides unparalleled digital access to a significant selection of unique source materials - more than 250,000 pages from 1,200 individual items, including 800 published books and 400 manuscript selections." There is a section on Missions to Native North Americans
Harvard University Library Open Collections Program - "Provides access to digitized historical, manuscript, and image resources selected from Harvard's library and museum collections." In January 2006, the Women Working collection consisted of "7,500 pages of manuscripts 3,500 books and pamphlets 1,200 photographs." You can
browse by subject and genre,
search by keyword, author, title and subject and
search the full text. One of the items in the collection is Choup-nit-ki, with the Nez Perce (1909) by E. Jane Gay (1830-1919) is from the Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America, Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study. It is described as "a two-volume collection of hand-colored photographs, illustrations, and letters providing a first-hand account of the implementation of the federal government's allotment policy toward the American Indians, as well as commentary on missionary work, westward expansion, racial conflict, and women's issues." The work is "illustrated from photographs by the author with deorations by Emma J. Gay." The author, in a prefatory note, states the following: "It was from the Nez Perce reservation, in the their territory of Idaho, that these letters were written by an unoffical member of her [Alice C. Fletcher] party. They were addressed to personal friends from whom they have been gathered by the compiler." There is a list of photographs on pp. 22-25 and a list of drawings on p. 27. The first of the letters, on p. 35, was written in May 30, 1889 from Lewiston, Idaho.
Haudenosaunee: People Building a Long House - Official source of news and information from the Haudenosaunee (Hodenosaunee), comprised of the traditional leadership of the Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, Oneida, Mohawk and Tuscarora Nations.
Hisatsinom and the Hohokam - Links to resources on the Hohokam people of Central Arizona, the ancestors of the Pima and Tohono O'odham Indians, and the Hisatsinom of the Four Corners, the ancestors of the Hopi, Zuni, and Pueblo Indians compiled by librarian Joel Rane.
History of the American West, 1860-1920 - Created by the Denver Public Library (see above) and now part of the National Digital Library Program at the Library of Congress, this collection "contains "over 30,000 photographs, drawn from the holdings of the Western History and Genealogy Department at Denver Public Library, illuminate many aspects of the history of the American West. Most of the photographs were taken between 1860 and 1920. They illustrate Colorado towns and landscape, document the place of mining in the history of Colorado and the West, and show the lives of Native Americans from more than forty tribes living west of the Mississippi River. Also included are World War II photographs of the 10th Mountain Division, ski troops based in Colorado who saw action in Italy." Keyword searchable and indexed by subject and by name. Try searching for the following: Indians of North America, Wounded Knee, Dakota, Sioux, Ute, Pueblo, David Barry, George Beam, C. G. Morledge, Horace Poley, Edward Boos, Sitting Bull or Red Cloud. A search for Wounded Knee Massacre, for example, retrieves 85 photographs, each carefully catalogued and annotated and with a url which can be bookmarked. A search for Ben Wittick (1845-1903) retrieves 68 images of Zuni, Apache, Hopi and Navajo scenes.
Huntington Free Library's Native American Collection - Cornell University collection, received June 15, 2004, is "comprised of more than 40,000 volumes on the archaeology, ethnology and history of the native peoples of the Americas from the colonial period to the present. Genres represented in great depth include books of voyage and exploration, missionary reports, ethnography, travel writing, native language dictionaries, captivity narratives, and children's books." The Fidelia Fielding Diaries consist of five volumes by Fidelia Hoscott Fielding (1827-1908), considered to be the last speaker and preserver of the Mohegan Pequot language. For additional information on the collection see p. 4 of the Cornell University Library Update for Spring 2005. The collection is valued at more than $8 million dollars and includes an album of original drawings by George Catlin. The collection was previously held by the Huntington Free Library, a public library in the Bronx, and, prior to that (1930), the Museum of the American Indian, then located in New York City. Following a lengthy legal battle over ownership between the Huntington Free Library and the Smithsonian Institution, which had absorbed the Museum of the American Indian in 1990, the collection was transferred to Cornell in June 2004. There are "plans to digitize a significant portion of its manuscript holdings and rare books. An exhibition drawn from the collection will go on view in the Hirshland Gallery in Kroch Library in October, 2005." See 'Vanished Worlds, Enduring People' -- Cornell's Native American Collection goes on display in the Cornell Chronicle, October 19, 2005 and Vanished Worlds, Enduring People: Cornell University Library's Native American Collection, the online exhibition.
[There are many variations in search terms and spelling. When searching, particularly in older literature, look for Moki, Moqui, Moquis, Orayvi, Orabai, Oreibas, Tusayan, Sikyatki, Awatobi, Thomas Keam, Keams Canyon, Antelope Mesa, Jeddito...]
Designs on Prehistoric Hopi Pottery - By Jesse Walter Fewkes. 78pp. Reprinted from the Thirty-Third Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, Washington, Government Printing Office, 1919. The full-text is available in pdf in Google Books and can be downloaded and printed. Harvard University owns the original copy signed by Fewkes. "Sikyatki pottery is "recognized as the most beautiful and elaborately decorated prehistoric pottery found in the Southwest.…a type of the most highly developed or golden epoch in Hopi ceramics" (p. 217). Winged figures predominate; many images provided starting on page 227 (30). Bibliography (Authorities Cited) is on p.284
Field Museum - Chicago. Was known as the Field Columbian Museum from 1895 to 1909. The Apache Collection "is largely a representative collection of approximately 900 objects, most of which were obtained in Arizona in 1901 and 1903 by Charles Owen, a Museum curator. This material is supplemented by a large collection purchased from Fred Harvey in 1905." For resources see Library, Photography Collections, and Anthropology. Of particular interest is Fieldiana, available and searchable via the Internet Archive. "Fieldiana series has been published as Anthropological Series by Field Columbian Museum (1895-1909) and Field Museum of Natural History (1909-1943), and as Fieldiana: Anthropology by Chicago Natural History Museum (1945-1966) and Field Museum of Natural History (1966-)." Hopi-related articles include:
Hopi Tribe - P.O. Box 123, Kykotsmovi, AZ 86039 (928-734-3000/3102 Fax: 928-734-6665). Benjamin H. Nuvamsa is the chairman of the Hopi Tribal Council, 1 Main Street, P.O. Box 123, Kykotsmovi, Arizona, 86039 (928-734-3100). The Bureau of Indian Affairs Hopi Agency Superintendent is Wendell Honanie, P.O. Box 158, Keams Canyon, Arizona, 86034 (928-738-2228).
Images Canada - Gateway to over 65,000 images from five Canadian institutions (Canada Science and Technology Museum, Glenbow Museum, National Library of Canada, Natural Resources Canada Earth Sciences Information Centre, Toronto Public Library). A search for Blackfoot, for example, retrieves 1419 images.
Images of Native Americans - Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley. "The Bancroft Library houses one the world's finest collections of research materials relating to the history of California and the American West, and this exhibition presents a selection of visual materials relating to Native Americans. The panorama of images selected includes illustrations from rare books, pamphlets, journals, pulp magazines, newspapers, and ephemera in addition to selections of original photographs, including stereographs, lantern slides, and cyanotypes."
Indian Peoples of the Northern Great Plains - Searchable online database of over 1500 photograph, stereographs, and drawings is organized by tribe, including: Crow, Cheyenne, Blackfeet, Salish (Flathead), Kutenai, Chippewa-Cree, Gros Ventres (Atsina), and Assiniboine. (Montana State University.)
Indian Sentinel, 1902-1962 - Searchable full-text of 320 issues. Published by the Bureau of Catholic Indian Missions. Raynor Memorial Libraries, Marquette University.
Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents, 1610 to 1791 - "This site contains entire English translation of the The Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents, originally compiled and edited by Reuben Gold Thwaites and published by The Burrows BrothersCompany, Cleveland, throughout the latter part of the nineteenth century. Each file represents the total English contents of a single published volume. The original work has facing pages in the original French, Latin or Italian, depending on the author." (Thom Mentrak and Rev. Raymond A. Bucko). (The Jesuit Relations are also available in Early Canadiana Online. Password not required.)
John Carter Brown Library - "One of the outstanding libraries of the world in the field of the history of the Americas, North and South, prior to 1825, and of European history as it bears on the Americas." With access to online catalog.
Journals of Arthur Wellington Clah: Native American and Christian Convert - Clah (1831-1916), was a Tsimshian, from the coast of British Columbia and an assistant to the English missionary William Duncan. "Clah's journals thus cover turbulent years in the history of his people. They deal with day-to-day personal issues, of course -Clah’s trading activities, fishing expeditions, the weather, religious musings - but were also intended to form a broader history of his people during these years, with material on the disputes between Duncan and the CMS as well as epidemics, survivals of potlatch ceremonies, relations between Native Americans and whites and native land claims. The latter are particularly prevalent." These journals fill over 70 notebooks and are owned by the Western Manuscripts division of the History of Medicine Library of the Wellcome Trust in London. Although only a few pages from the journal are available online, queries about the Clah journals can be directed to the Library's Department of Archives and Manuscripts (firstname.lastname@example.org). A subject search in the library's online catalog for Tsimshian Indians retrieves 9 records. In BC Studies: The British Columbia Quarterly there is a special issue on Native Peoples and Colonialism, Numbers 115/116, Autumn/Winter 1997-98, which has an article by R.M. Galois: Colonial Encounters: The Worlds of Arthur Wellington Clah, 1855-1881 (pp. 105-147).
Kansas Collection - University of Kansas digital collection contains full text Books, articles, images and other primary sources.
Kappler's Indian Affairs: Laws & Treaties - "Historically significant, seven volume compilation of U.S.treaties, laws and executive orders pertaining to Native American Indian tribes. The volumes cover U.S. Government treaties with Native Americans from 1778-1883 (Volume II) and U.S. laws and executive orders concerning Native Americans from 1871-1970 (Volumes I, III-VII). The work was first published in 1903-04 by the U.S. Government Printing Office. Enhanced by the editors' use of margin notations and a comprehensive index, the information contained in Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties is in high demand by Native peoples, researchers, journalists, attorneys, legislators, teachers and others of both Native and non-Native origins." A project of the Oklahoma State University Library.
Native American Heritage Month Keynote Address - Representatvie Tom Cole, 6 November 2007. "Rep. Tom Cole, who is a fifth-generation Oklahoman and a member of the Chickasaw Nation, is the only Native American currently serving in the U.S. Congress." [54 minutes]
Guiding Our Destiny - Loriene Roy, 2 November 2007 [45 minutes]. Roy is a librarian and a member of the Minnesota Chippewa Tribe.
Magee Photograph Collection - "Selection of nearly 1,000 digitized photographic negatives depicting life on the Blackfeet Nation [Browning, Montana] and in Glacier National Park [U.S.] during the early twentieth century." University of Lethbridge Library.
Making of America - Digital library of nineteenth century books and journal volumes. The digitization project was undertaken at both the University of Michigan and Cornell University with funding from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation. Search both collections:
You can also browse periodical titles at
A sampling of the full-text titles available:
Documentary History of the State of New-York (1849) by E. B. (Edmund Bailey) O'Callaghan (1797-1880). For more on O'Callaghan see New York: the State of History by Joseph F. Meany Jr., originally presented in 1994 as the New York State Historian's "State of History" Address to the annual meeting of the Association of Public Historians of New York State. Meany describes
O'Callaghan's Documentary history of the state of New-York (4 vols.) thus: " although a potpourri of material, it is important as the first time New York State published a collection of documentary sources. As such, The Documentary History of New York is still used by students and scholars today and many of us are familiar with its four fat volumes sitting on our bookshelves." Volume II includes The Papers relating to western New-York and The Manuscripts of Sir William Johnson, (Section III, pp. 543-1009), and is particularly intereesting. In 1746 Johnson was named Commissary for Indian Affairs by Governor Clinton of New York and in 1755 was appointed Superintendent of Indian Affairs by Major General Braddock. (See also Sir William Johnson and the six nations (1891) by William Elliot Griffis.) Volume II consists of the following sections:
I. Papers Relating to Lt. Gov. Liesler's Administration [1689-1691] p. 1
II. Early Rate Lists of Long Island [1675, 1676 & 1683] p. 439
III. Manuscripts of Sir William Johnson, [From the originals on file in the Secretary of State's Dep't Albany] p. 543
IV. Early Steam Navigation, p. 1011
V. Papers Relating to Western New-York, p. 1103. The Index is on pp. 1190-1212
The first entry on p. 545 is the Proceedings of Commissioners from 6 Provinces Met at Albany Anno 1754 on Indian Affairs, p. 868 is the Journal of Indn Transactions at Niagara, in the Year 1767 From 2d July to the 24th September and on p. 632 is a description of a Condolence Ceremony at Onondaga on September 8, 1753.
"September the 8th 1753. Entered the Onondaga Castle being mett by the Sachims a Mile on this Side, who said they were allready to receive me, Soon after I was seated, the Red Head one of the Chief Sachims of that Castle, rose up, and Spoke as follows: Brother Warraghiiyagey. As You enter our Meeting Place with wett Eyes, & sorrowfull Hearts, in Conjunction with our Bretheren the Mohawks, we do with this string of Wampum wipe away your tears, and asswage your greif, that you may speak freely in this Assembly --Here they gave the String of Wampum -- Here follows what I said to the General Convention of the Six Nations att Onondaga spoke by Hendrick the Chief of the Mohawks -- Bretheren of the Six Nations--The great conscern I am under for the loss of our three great and beloved Brothers, Caghniagarota, Onughsadego, and Gahusquerowana, who in their time made Your Assembly compleat makes it incumbent on me to condole thier death, and as it is a great loss to Us in general, I do by these three Belts of Wampum dry up your tears that we may see each other, clear your throats that we may speak together and wash away their Blood out of our Sight, and cover their Bones with these Strowd Blankets."
Marius Barbeau - Barbeau was an anthropologist at the Canadian Museum of Civilization. "Barbeau's first research interest was the Native peoples of Eastern Canada, especially the Huron. His research included the songs, customs, legends, art and social organization of Native cultures in the Western and Prairie regions."
See objects, photographs and publications. For example Totem Poles: According to Crests and Topics, National Museum of Canada bulletin; 119-Vol. I, 1950; and Assomption Sash, National Museum of Canada. 51 p., 1937.
Mascots - The 46 minute documentary In Whose Honor? American Indian Mascots in Sports (1997) tells the story of Charlene Teters. See review by Orlando Archibeque, Auraria Library, University of Colorado at Denver.
Distributed by New Day Films, 190 Route 17M, P.O. Box 1084, Harriman, NY.
Teters is a founding member of the National Coalition on Racism in Sports and the Media. See also American Indian Sports Team Mascots.
Michael Apted's Incident at Oglala - The Leonard Peltier Story (1992), described by New York Times reviewer Janet Maslin as a "straightforward, meticulous documentary" is available in
video. Apted's Thunderheart (1992) was filmed on the Pine Ridge Reservation and employs many Indian actors, including John Trudell and Chief Ted Thin Elk.
Musée du quai Branly - Paris. You can search the collection of this Paris museum whose many strengths include cultural objects from the Americas (97,372).
The site's a bit difficult to use if you don't know French, but here's how to see some of the objects in the collection: click on Explorer les Collections, select le catalogue des objets from the sidebar menu, then select Voir le catalogue des objets . Under Sélectionner un critère de recherche, select Ethonyme(s) from the drop-down menu and in the Saisir la recherche box type in Sioux. This search retrieves 85 images including a beaded bag (Petit sac en peau. Décor perlé, N° inventaire : 71.1990.174.7), and several pairs of beaded mocassins. Try also Blackfoot or Iroquois. Past exhibitions (manifestations passées) include: Premières nations, collections royales (January 2007). See Sam Solomon's review, Quebec Heritage News, Fall 2007.
National Archeological Database: Reports - "Expanded bibliographic inventory of approximately 240,000 reports on archeological investigation and planning, mostly of limited circulation. This "gray literature" represents a large portion of the primary information available on archeological sites in the U.S. NADB-Reports can be searched by state, county, worktype, cultural affiliation, keyword, material, year of publication, title, and author." Hosted by the Center For Advanced Spatial Technologies under a cooperative agreement with the National Park Service. Has a section on the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act.
Photographs of the American West: 1861-1912 - Has 196 images of Native Americans including one of the William B. Douglas party with Navajo and Paiute Indians, celebrating their discovery of Rainbow Bridge, Utah, as they eat watermelon in Paiute Canyon, 1909. You can also search for Dawes Commission applications (Dawes Rolls). Do a keyword search with Dawes on one line and an individual's name on the next line. A standard keyword search for example for Dawes and Green retrieves 64 results. Click on display results. You can also limit your results to digital copies only by using the Digital Copies Search Form. "Commonly called the Commission to the Five Civilized Tribes, the Dawes Commission was appointed by President Grover Cleveland in 1893 to negotiate with the Cherokee, Creek, Choctaw, Chickasaw and Seminole tribes. In return for abolishing their tribal governments and recognizing state and federal laws, tribe members were allotted a share of common property. Heads of families, orphans, and children could receive 40 to 160 acres of land by proving their tribal membership. This series contains the original applications for tribal enrollments under the act of June 28, 1898, as well as supporting documents such as birth and death affidavits, marriage licenses, transcripts of testimony taken by the Commission, correspondence relating to the status of the application, and decisions and orders of the Commission." Of particular interest is the Index to the Final Rolls of Citizens and Freedmen of the Five Civilized Tribes in Indian Territory (Dawes) and the Index to the Applications Submitted for the Eastern Cherokee Roll of 1909, also known as the Guion Miller Roll, which "includes the names of all persons applying for compensation arising from the judgment of the United States Court of Claims on May 28, 1906, for the Eastern Cherokee tribe. While numerous individuals applied, not all the claims were allowed. The information included on the index is the application number, the name of the applicant, and the State or Territory in which the individual resided at the time the application was filed."
National Congress of American Indians - Founded in 1944, the NCAI is "the oldest, largest and most representative national Indian organization serving the needs of a broad membership of American Indian and Alaska Native governments."
Polacca Polychrome jar - "Large jar representing four bowls on top of each other, white ware, red and black painted decoration. Hopi, Arizona, William M. Fitzhugh Collection", from original catalog card, number 19/4358.
Potter Building Her Kiln - Photograph by Edward Sheriff Curtis, 1906. "Nampeyo (1859-1942), Hopi Pueblo woman, firing pottery outside." Catalog number: P1369.
National Union Catalog of Manuscript Collections - Searchable via RLIN AMC File Advanced Search Form, an Easy Search Form (word list) and an Easy Search Form (left-anchored phrase). A search for Iroquois, for example, retrieves over 170 records, among which is a citation which leads to a description of the Gideon Hawley Papers owned by the Congregational Library and Archives in Boston and available in microfilm. Hawley established a mission among the Six Nations on the Susquehanna in 1754, near Windsor, New York. Volume 1 contains journal documentation of Hawley's mission to the Six Nations from January 27-September 1754 and April 20, 1755-January 1756.
Native American Authors - Internet Public Library project provides "information on Native North American authors with bibliographies of their published works, biographical information, and links to online resources including interviews, online texts and tribal websites"
Native American History Class Projects - "Projects developed by Duke University students in Professor Peter Wood's Native American History class. They are based on documentary sources from the Duke University Special Collections Library and were developed in collaboration with the library's Digital Scriptorium.They include transcribed text from manuscripts, scanned images of photographs and manuscript pages, and analytical essays by the students."
Native American Legal Materials Microfiche Collection - Historical collection of laws, treaties, and law-related materials produced by the Law Library Microform Consortium. In 1995 the Washburn University School of Law Library undertook a project to provide access through its online catalog to all of the titles in the NALM collection.
NativeWeb - Comprehensive site offers links to newsletters and journals, bibliographies, legal information, historical information and various tribal home pages. NativeWeb Law is a good resource for law and legal issues and offers a NativeWeb News Digest, a digest of national news stories, updated regularly.
Navajo National Monument - "Preserves three of the most intact cliff dwellings of the ancestral puebloan people (Hisatsinom)." The Keet Seel / Kawestima
& Betatikin/Talastima cliff dwellings in Tsegi Canyon can only be reached by foot. Permits are required for Keet Seel, a 17-mile hike (limited to 20 hikers per day.)
Call to find out more about this hike (928-672-2700). "Betatakin guided hikes are available every day at 8:30 and 11 AM during the summer months and most days at 10:00 am (local time) from early September to late May. It is a three- to four-hour, five-mile ranger-guided tour." There are two free campgrounds. "Camping at Keet Seel is available for backpackers at a primitive campground, 1/2 mile from the ruins. Composting toilets are available and no campfires are allowed. Carry a stove if you wish to cook." See Navajo Administrative History for background. In Gallica, a digital library of the Bibliothèque nationale de France, is the full-text of Preliminary report on a visit to the Navaho National Monument, Arizona by Jesse Walter Fewkes, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 50, 1911 (35 pages in all). Betatakin is described on p. 12, and Kitsiel (Keet Seel or Kiet Siel) on p. 16.
Northwest History Database - Washington State University Libraries. "Core of the database is the Northwest newspaper clippings collection. The newspaper articles were collected and organized in the late 1930's by dedicated historians working for the Works Progress Administration." Try an advanced search by subject for Native American, Native Americans, Indian, Reservation, Klickitat, Warm Springs, Cascade, Nespelem, Yakima, Colville, Nez Perce, Chief Joseph, Lapwai, Lawrence Nicodemus, Spokane, salmon etc.
"Keller Salmon Day Dramatic" - Spokesman-Review, May 29, 1927.
"Nespelem Sees Great Spectacle" - Spokane Chronicle, July 13, 1928. "Colvilles, Spokanes, Okanogans, Methows, San Poils, Kalispels, Flatheads, yakimas, Umatillas, Coer d'Alenes and Nez Perces were prsent in the greatest gathering the Indians of the Nespelem valley have ever entertained and it was estimated that 2000 witnessed the closing parade."
Ohwejagehka: Ha`degaenage - "Nonprofit organization based on Six Nations of the Grand River in Ontario Canada that was established to help preserve and nurture the Iroquoian languages and songs." With descriptions and RealAudio samples of Iroquois Earth Songs.
Ogden Family Papers - Contents description, William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan. "The Ogden Land Company, purchased huge tracts of land from Indians of the Six Nations and resold it to whites at an enormous profit."
Oglala Lakota College Archives - Contains the Jeanne Smith Collection. The bulk of the material consists of "family and community histories of the Pine Ridge Reservation, especially white men who married full-blood Lakota women. All subjects in the collection are related to the Pine Ridge Reservation and the Lakota people, history, genealogy (white/Indians inter-marrying), and government." See also Selected Collections: Folder Lists.
Omaha Indian Music - "Features traditional Omaha music from the 1890s and 1980s. The multiformat ethnographic field collection contains 44 wax cylinder recordings collected by Francis La Flesche and Alice Cunningham Fletcher between 1895 and 1897, 323 songs and speeches from the 1983 Omaha harvest celebration pow-wow, and 25 songs and speeches from the 1985 Hethu'shka Society concert at the Library of Congress. Segments from interviews with members of the Omaha tribe conducted in 1983 and 1999 provide contextual information for the songs and speeches included in the collection. Supplementing the collection are black-and-white and color photographs taken during the 1983 pow-wow and the 1985 concert, as well as research materials that include fieldnotes and tape logs pertaining to the pow-wow." (American Memory, Library of Congress.)
On Tribal Land, an Arson Leads to Murder, Prison - by Gary Fields, Wall Street Journal, August 13, 2007. "There are 3,470 American Indians serving time in the federal prison system. That's more, proportionately, than any other racial group."
On the Rez - Article by Ian Frazier about the Oglala Sioux Indians who live on thePine Ridge Reservation, in southwestern South Dakota. (From Atlantic Monthly, December, 1999)
Oyate - "Native organization working to see that our lives and histories are portrayed honestly, and so that all people will know our stories belong to us ... Our work includes evaluation of texts, resource materials and fiction by and about Native peoples; conducting of teacher workshops, in which participants learn to evaluate children's material for anti-Indian biases; administration of a small resource center and library; and distribution of children's, young adult, and teacher books and materials, with an emphasis on writing and illustration by Native people."
Pauline Johnson Archive - First Native poet to have her work published in Canada, Johnson was the daughter of a Mohawk Native-Canadian father and an English mother. She used the Mohawk name "Tekahionwake" and gave popular recitals of her poetry, comedy routines and plays from Halifax to Vancouver. Located in the Mills Memorial Archive of McMaster University, the archive contains an abundance of material including correspondence, photographs, postcards and manuscripts.
Pennsylvania History: A Journal of Mid-Atlantic Studies - Official journal of the Pennsylvania Historical Association (PHA). Provides all back issues of the journal--beginning with Vol. 1 (1934) and continuing up through Vol. 67 (2000). The site is searchable. (Some years are not yet available). Articles of interest include:
George Morgan, Indian Agenet Extraordinary, 1776-1779, by Randolph C. Downes (October, 1934) 202-216;
How the Indians Came to Carlisle by Louis Morton, 29 (January 1962), 53-73;
George Washington's Route from Venango to Fort Le Bouef, 175_, by Paul A.W. Wallace, 28 (October 1961), 325-334;
Pennsylvania and the Albany Congress, 1754 by Roger R. Trask, 27 (July 1960), 273-290;
Pioneering the Upper Midwest: Books from Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin, ca. 1820-1910 - Library of Congress site "portrays the states of Michigan, Minnesota and Wisconsin from the seventeenth to the early twentieth century through first-person accounts, biographies, promotional literature, local histories, ethnographic and antiquarian texts, colonial archival documents, and other works." (American Memory). Full-text titles include With pen and pencil on the frontier in 1851; the diary and sketches of Frank Blackwell Mayer, an account by a Baltimore artist, who journeyed to Traverse de Sioux and Mendota on the Minnesota frontier in 1851 to record meetings between United States officials and Indian tribes who were ceding title to much of Southern Minnesota and portions of Iowa and Dakota and History of the Ottawa and Chippewa Indians of Michigan; a grammar of their language, and personal and family history of the author, by Andrew J. Blackbird, the son of a an Ottawa chief.
Antiquities of the upper Gila and Salt river valleys in Arizóna and New Mexico - By Walter Hough, (1859-1935), Smithsonian institution. Bureau of American ethnology ; Bulletin 35, Washington, Government printing office, 1907. The full-text of this document can be found in Gallica. Search also for Jesse Walter Fewkes.
Powhatan's Mantle - Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. "'Powhatan's Mantle' is the only surviving example of five 'match-coats' and habits supposedly made by the Algonquian Indians of Virginia listed in the 1656 catalogue of the Tradescant collection."
Primary Source Microfilm Search - Thomson Gale resource is helpful in locating obscure names and places and unusual spelling. You won't actually be able to view the primary sources. There is a useful alphabetical index. To view the entire alphabet change the url accordingly - 203000b.htm, 203000c.htm etc. Index for D has extensive notes on Thomas Dean, a Quaker missionary who represented the Brotherton Indians. You can download author index and reel listing from the author index and reel listing from Iroquois Indians: A Documentary History.
PubMed - National Library of Medicine database of over 15 million citations for biomedical articles back to the 1950's. The following phrase inserted in the search box will locate over 900 articles on Diabetes: "Indians, North American"[MeSH] AND "Diabetes Mellitus"[MeSH]
Repatriation Office - National Museum of Natural History Department of Anthropology division established in 1991 to carry out the statutory requirements of the National Museum of the American Indian Act.
Reports of the Secretary of War - Subtitled: With Reconnaissances of Routes from San Antonio to El Paso; Also The Report of Capt. R. B. Marcy's Route from Fort Smith to Santa Fe; and the Report of Lieut. J. H. Simpson [James Hervey Simpson (1813-1883)] of an Expedition into the Navaho Country; and The Report of Lieutenant W. H. C. Whiting's Reconnaisances of the Western Frontier of Texas, Executive Document No. 64, U.S. Senate, 31st Congress, 1st Session, July 24, 1850. Full-text of Harvard University copy bequeathed by Francis Parkman can be found in Google Books. Of particular interest is Journal of a military reconnaisance from Santa Fe, New Mexico, to the Navajo country, made with the troops under the command of Brevet Lieutenant Colonel John M. Washington, chief of the 9th military department, and governor of New Mexico, in 1849, by James H. Simpson, A.M., First Lieutenat Corps of Topographical Engineers. The journal (pp. 55-168) includes several appendices and "seventy-five sketches and drawings of great interest and highly necessary to illustrate the report." Watson Smith describes Simpson as an "interested and careful observer" (p. 84, Kiva Mural Decorations at Awativiand Kawaika-a). The journal describes August and September 1849. "I also submit a number of sketches illustrative of the personal, natural, and artificial objects met with on the route, including portraits of distinguished chiefs, costume, scenery, singular geological formations, petrifactions, ruins, and fac similes of ancient inscriptions found engraven on the side walls of a rock of stupendous proportions, and of fair surface. (Simpson gives credit to his assistants, brothers R. H. Kern and E. M. Kern, for the maps and sketches). The plates begin on p. 251. See, for example, Color Plate #6, You-Pel-Lay, or the Green Corn Dance of the Jemez Indians, August 19th (1849). See also Navaho Expedition: Journal of a Military Reconnaissance from Santa Fe, New Mexico, to the Navaho Country Made in 1849 edited and annotated by Frank McNitt, Norman, University of Oklahoma Press .
Return of the Natives: An eight-part series - Series on Northeast Indians by Daniel P. Jones, David Lightman, Hilary Waldman, Kenton Robinson, Edmund Mahony and Steve Grant that appeared in the Hartford Courant between May 22 and May 29, 1994. Unbroken treaties: How a new generation got the law on its side provides an account of how Syracuse attorney George C. Shattuck won a unanimous ruling in 1974 from the U.S. Supreme Court for the Oneidas (Oneida Indian Nation of New York State v. County of Oneida, New York, 414 U.S. 661, argued Nov. 6 and 7, 1973, decided Jan. 21, 1974). Related decisions include County of Oneida, New York v. Oneida Indian Nation of New York State, 470 U.S. 226, decided March 4, 1985 and Oneida Indian Nation v. County of Oneida, No. 70-CV-35, United States District Court, July 12, 1977. In Oneida & Madison Counties v. Oneida Indian Nation, 470 U.S. 226, argued Oct. 1, 1984 and decided March 4, 1985, the Oneidas sued two New York State counties seeking damages representing fair rental value of the land presently owned and occupied by the counties. Shattuck wrote a book on the issue The Oneida Land Claims: A Legal History, Syracuse University Press, 1991. ($19.95). On March 29, 2005, in City of Sherrill v. Oneida Indian Nation of N. Y., the Supreme Court decided that the Oneida Tribe cannot expand its tax-exempt holdings by buying up property that has been outside its reservation for generations.
Song Catcher, Frances Densmore of Red Wing - Minnesota Public Radio site about Frances Densmore who spent her life trying to gather up scraps and artifacts of the old Indian ways for the Smithsonian Institution. The site consits of audio files, interviews and photographs. Provides a Table of Contents.
Southwestern Native Americans Digital Archive - University of Southern California archive "contains over 1,000 images, dating between 1890 and 1905 that were created or collected by George Wharton James. They document Native American reservation and Southwestern mission daily life and culture and include images of the Agua Caliente, Cahuilla, Hopi, Mohave, Pala, Paum, Yokut, and Yuma peoples."
Sto:lo Electronic Library - Sto:lo Nation site is "designed for use by grades ten to twelve students, [and] consists of 18 essays on Stó:lo culture and history, supplemented with images and sounds, 4 appendices, and a glossary of key words."
Sylvia Davis v. United States - United States Court of Appeals, Tenth Circuit, September 21, 1999. Sylvia Davis, a Seminole Indian (who is also African-American) of Shawnee, Oklahoma, was denied government assistance funds by the tribe on the grounds that she did not possess a Certificates of Degree of Indian Blood for her son.
Talking History - Organization of American Historians. There is a Show Selector. There are interviews with
Charles C. Mann, author of 1491: New Revelations of the Americas Before Columbus, (December 19, 2005) and with
Camilla Townsend, author of Pocahontas and the Powhatan Dilemma (March 13, 2006).
Tears in the Sand - Rocky Mountain PBS video about the Sand Creek Massacre offers interview transcripts and QuickTime video.
THOMAS: U. S. Congress on the Internet - Locate legislation. Search by subject (Federal aid to Indians, Federal-Indian relations, Indians, Indian children, Indian claims, Indian economic development, Indian education, Indian gambling operations, Indian Lands, Indian law enforcement, Indian Medical Care, Indian water rights, Internet Gambling, etc.) or by bill number (S.1507, S.614, S.692, S.1290, S.613, H.R.1944, H.R.3125, etc.)
Thomas Jefferson Papers - Library of Congress collection consists of over 83,000 images including correspondence, commonplace books, financial account books, and manuscript volumes. Searchable by keyword or browsable by collection.
Kappler's Indian Affairs: Laws & Treaties - "Historically significant, seven volume compilation of U.S.treaties, laws and executive orders pertaining to Native American Indian tribes. The volumes cover U.S. Government treaties with Native Americans from 1778-1883 (Volume II) and U.S. laws and executive orders concerning Native Americans from 1871-1970 (Volumes I, III-VII). The work was first published in 1903-04 by the U.S. Government Printing Office. Enhanced by the editors' use of margin notations and a comprehensive index, the information contained in Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties is in high demand by Native peoples, researchers, journalists, attorneys, legislators, teachers and others of both Native and non-Native origins." A project of the Oklahoma State University Library. Provides 366 of the 375 treaties recognized by the U.S. Department of State.
American Indians of the Pacific Northwest - "Extensive digital collection of original photographs and documents about the Northwest Coast and Plateau Indian cultures, complemented by essays written by anthropologists, historians, and teachers about both particular tribes and cross-cultural topics."
Voices from the Gaps: Women Writers of Color - "Ongoing collaborative effort between faculty and students in the Department of English and the Program in American Studies at the University of Minnesota." There is a section on Indigenous/Native American women writers, with extensive biographical and bibliographical material and links to other resources.
Waste Management in Indian Country - U.S. Environmental Protection Agency provides publications, educational materials, funding sources, federal and tribal regulations and links to other federal agencies, tribal programs and professional associations.
Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents - Published every Monday by the Office of the Federal Register, National Archives and Records Administration and contains statements, messages, and other Presidential materials released by the White House during the preceding week. A search for Navajo in the year 2000, for example, retrieves 23 results, one of which contains President Clinton's Remarks to the People of the Navajo Nation in Shiprock, New Mexico on April 17, 2000.
William L. Clements Library - University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. "The Clements Library collects primary source materials in all formats relating to the history of America prior to the mid-twentieth century. The holdings are particularly strong in the intellectual, cultural, and military history of the late colonial period, the Early Republic, and the 19th century..."
Winter Counts - Plains Indians used buffalo hide paintings to record historical events. There are several articles on winter counts in the Bureau of American ethnology which is available full-text in Gallica, bibliothèque numérique de la Bibliothèque nationale de France. To locate the articles, do a search (recherche) for the title (Mots du titre) bureau of american ethnology. From your results, select Annual report of the Bureau of American ethnology: to the Secretary of the Smithsonian institution (Voir la liste des fascicules). This will bring up a list of all the titles they own, from 1881 (N 01 / 1879-1880) to 1933 (N 048 / 1930-1931). Pictographs of the North American Indians, Fourth Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology, 1886 (1882-1883) has 58 pages of text and 46 full-page plates devoted to the winter counts of the Dakota Indians and in the Tenth Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology, 1983 (1888-1889) there is an article by Garrick Mallery on Picture-Writing of the American Indians.
Wright American Fiction, 1851-1875 - Collection of 19th century American fiction, as listed in Lyle Wright's bibliography which attempts to include every novel published in the United States from 1851 to 1875. Project of the Indiana University Digital Library Program. There are currently 2,887 volumes included (2,109 unedited, 778 fully edited and encoded) by 1,394 authors. You can search the full-text. Wright "listed a total of 2,923 titles in adult fiction, including "novels, novelettes, romances, short stories, tall tales, tract-like tales, allegories, and fictitious biographies and travels, in prose" (from the introduction), and inventoried 18 American libraries for holdings. This compilation is part of his three-volume set listing American fiction from 1774 through 1900, and is still considered the most comprehensive bibliography of American adult fiction of the 18th and 19th centuries." The libraries inventoried were: American Antiquarian Society, Athenaeum of Philadelphia, Boston Athenaeum, Boston Public Library, Brown University Library, Columbia University Library, Harvard University Library, Henry E. Huntington Library, Library of Congress, Library Company of Philadelphia, Newberry Library, New York Historical Society Library, New York Public Library, University of Chicago Library, University of Minnesota Library, University of Pennsylvania Library, University of Virginia library, Yale University Library. You can also search by Wright numbers (search by idno).
Relevant titles include:
The True Narrative of the Five Years Suffering and Perilous Adventures - By Miss Barber, Wife of "Squatting Bear," A Celebrated Sioux Chief, Philadelphia, Barclay , (Wright 2556). ""Miss Barber, a native of Massachusetts, in her religious enthusiasm, resolved to go among the Indians, as missionary, and with that purpose in view married Squatting Bear, at Washington D.C. After five years of suffering and stirring adventures, this beautiful young lady has just returned East, and her narrative is one of deep and entrancing interest. A valuable feature of this work is the Indian receipts, given by Miss Barber, for the cure of various diseases. They are very efficacious." (From title page)